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Shirt Cutting from the Einheitssystem


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#1 Sator

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Posted 27 May 2009 - 01:51 AM



Ow = chest
Rh (Rückenhöhe)= depth of scye
Tl = waist length
L = length
Bb = bust width
W = neck point
Rb (Rückenbreite) = back width

Rückteil = Back Panel

Rb is short for Rückenbreite. rh to W = 1/4 Rb
Rh is short for Rückenhöhe. Rh to W = depth of scye `+ 1cm





Halsloch = neck seam
Rücken = back
Halsloch (Rücken)
H from W = 1/6 neck width + 2cm

Rb to W = backwidth + 2cm

Armduchmesser = arm diameter
Ad to R = 1/8 chest measure + 3cm

Seitennaht = side seam
S = 1/2 R to Ad

Vorderteil = Front Panel

Achselhöhe = front strap measure
Ahö to Ad = R to Rb - 2cm
al to Ahö = 3cm

Brustbreite = chest width
Bb to Ad = 1/4 chest - 3cm

Halsloch (vorderteil) = neck seam (front)
Vhl to Hm = 1/6 neck width
Ht to Hm = 1/6 neck width - 1cm

Schulterbreite = shoulder width
al to Vhl = a to Rhl

Armloch = armscye
From al passing through S towards a

vordere Mitte = centre front
Ht to T2 is a vertical line
6-7 cm is added to the front for the placket

Rückteilserweiterung ´= widening of back panel
Add 6-7cm for the pleats at back



Ärmel (Bild 116) = sleeve (diagram 116)
k to K = 1/2 armscye width
kl to k = 7 to 8 cm
L to K = arm length (excluding cuff)
Ll to L = 1/2 K to k + 4cm

Schlitz = slit
lies in the centre L to Ll

Schlitzlänge
12 to 14cm

Umschlagmanschette = double cuff (diagram 117)
Umschlag = fold
Manschette = cuff
Länge = length = 26 to 28cm
Breite = width = 4 to 5 cm

Ärmelbünchden (Bild 118) = Sleeve (diagram 118)

feste Kragen (geschlossene Form) = attached collar (?closed from) Pictures 119/119a
Diagram 119
Ht to W = 1-2 neck width
Krh to W = 2.7 to 3cm
krh to Ht = 2.3 to 2.5cm
Diagram 119a
ht to w = 1/2 neck width
Krb to w = 3.7 to 4cm
krb to ht = 5 to 6 cm




Halsbündchen = neck band
Stehkragen mit Ecken = standing collar with wings

The next pattern is for an evening dress shirt:



From die Zuschneidekunst nach dem Einheitssystem. Leipzig, 1953.

I will slowly add more translation as time allows. More coming on cutting for stout waisted figures, stooped and erect postures.

#2 Schneidergott

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Posted 27 May 2009 - 03:55 AM

This is a more recent pattern for what is called a "city shirt".



The blue printed terms are the translation of the basic symbols you will find in Rundschau drafts.

Not such a big difference in the drafts, except that the 1953 pattern has the nicer armhole and a simpler sleeve (which is not a bad thing).

This is a draft from a british book (regular fit shirt):



Here comes the "tailored" version:



Can anybody comment if the rounded shape of the sleeve seams have any benefit? Plus I find the sleeve cap of the british patterns very high.
From personal experience I know that shirt sleeves with a shorter cap allow more movement, although there may be some bulging fabric under the arms, which I find more acceptable than a clean sleeve and restricted movement.

I have attached an old list of tailoring terms , which hopefully covers the basic German to English terms, so you can follow the instructions more easily.

Attached Files


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#3 quietearp

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Posted 27 May 2009 - 09:40 AM

I wonder if the rounded sleeve seam isn't a way of adding a bit of extra ease mid-arm to prevent the cuff riding up when the arm is bent. The same result is achieved by shaping the sleeve seam line at the cuff so that the sleeve is slightly longer in back than in the front, as illustrated in David Page Coffin's book. The latter does work to help keep the cuff in place, at least on my shirts, but I would guess it's usefulness would depend on the proportion of the wearer's arms and the amount of ease in the sleeve in the first place.

#4 jcsprowls

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Posted 27 May 2009 - 10:13 AM

The shape of the undearm seam is simply a matter of simplifying the sewing operation. Aldrich's drafts are primarily oriented around the factory - which is why I like them. The high sleeve cap presents some production difficulties, though, which is why the curves are typically flatter and smoother in real life.

Fellling of the sleeve cap to the shoulder seam has constraints because it makes use of a special folder:



This folder is custom made to each brand's specification, though a 3/8" or 1/2" finish is most common on a man's shirt style. To use this folder properly, the curves of the sleevehead seam cannot be too severe. The "regular" draft and the "city shirt" draft are more likely to work with this specific attachment. I find that a sleeve cap height between 3" and 4 1/2" works best with this specific folder.

The "tailored" style with the high sleeve cap (more than 4 1/2") would require using this attachment in a production environment:



or performing both operations by hand.

What I do is emulate the 2nd folder's operation by turning down (against the feed dogs) a 1/4" clean edge, edgestitching it through, then joining the sleeve to the armhole seam, pressing and toptstich felling using a compensating foot.

I've also tried creasing the edge of the seam allowance using a pattern template made from oaktag. I don't recommend it. The two-step sewing operation produces better results because the downturn clean finish edge eases in surplus seam allowance as you sew around the curve.

I'm inclined to prefer the 2nd folder (and, the manual operation) most because it works regardless the style and doesn't require too many excess doo-dads at the sewing desk. When something works more times than not, I like to latch onto it as a standard procedure.

I've tried Aldrich's method of shaping the cuff seam at the guantlet. It does produce more blousiness in the gauntlet area. The production patterns I've made and seen tend to more closely resemble the cuff seam shaping of the Rundschau draft.
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#5 Schneidergott

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Posted 28 May 2009 - 04:19 AM

Here is a set of basic collar drafts. Each one can be adjusted to personal likes and/ or requested style.



All drafts are without seam- allowances.

My neck is on the longer side, so I do like those high italian collar types. They are hard to find, but D.P. Coffin has a nice one in his book.
I prefer the shaped collar stand over the straight one. The versions shown here are starting 0,7cm above the baseline in the back and 0,5cm in the front. Would it make sense to shape the collar even more, especially in the front (make it more rounded, like the tunic collar)?
I'm just asking because I'd like to make a shirt for myself and I want to avoid several trials of different collar stand shapes.
BTW, how much do you add to the customers neck girth measurement (fabric pre-washed several times)?
The majority of our customers have disproportionate proportions (17 neck on a 15 body), that's why they try us. Our sleeves usually have high caps, which leads to many remade shirts with shorter caps. Not to mention the deep armhole.
The nature of most our fabrics doesn't allow the use of the tools jcsprowls mentioned. The fabric has an easy iron treatment which makes it kind of slippery. They sometimes use them anyway and the seams are always messy.
Would the use of such folders require to have different seam allowances? I'd guess they're necessary when the seams are made by hand.
And another question (if you don't mind): Almost all shirts have the sleeve and the side seam sewn in one go. Does it make sense to sew those seams separately, in order to get a more set in sleeve (like a jacket), or can the benefits (if there are any) be ignored?

"Nur der ist Meister seiner Kunst, der immer sucht, das Gute zu verbessern und niemals glaubt, das Beste schon zu haben."
"Only he is a master of his art who always seeks to improve the good and never believes to have the best already"

http://www.dressedwell.net/ It's snarky, but fun.


#6 jcsprowls

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Posted 28 May 2009 - 06:16 AM

For the shirts I've sent to production, the scye seam is 1/4" allowed; and, the sleeve cap has 5/8" allowed. The sleeve cap has ~1/4" turned under with the folder and then topstitch felled at 3/8".

If the sleeve is designed to be felled at 1/2" I allow 3/8" to the scye seam, and 3/4" to the cap.

The french felled side seam from is typically sewn "in one" (i.e. hem to cuff). The slightly bowed shape of the sleeve makes crossing the scye seam easier.

I haven't attempted to set in a shirt sleeve like I would a sportscoat. I'm not sure the results are worth the effort. Felling the sleeve cap as a barrel would feel strange to my hands.

I use a different drafting approach for collars; but, the result is pretty much the same as you've pictured. I've seen some patterns from outside companies where the stand looks like a C on it's back (shudder) and I've seen some cut as straight bands. Neither of those I agree with. Most anything else that resembles an inverted cone tilted toward the front of the body I can agree with, though. The elliptical compound of the shape can be refined during fitting/iteration.

If you're not sure what collar style is appropriate for you, I'd suggest just working up a number of collars, only. You can do this in paper, too.

I frequently sew isolated samples for designers in order for them to think through a particular design element. For example, if they need to visualize the difference between a welted/jetted pocket v. a patch pocket, I'll sew an 8" X 8" sample of only the pockets and present their options, costs, etc.

I also do this to practice. Case in point: one style that I will work on next week has invisibly-sewn patch pockets on the coat. I'm not particularly fond or good at this particular style. So, I'll cut a stack of a dozen pockets and 'bodies' in some throwaway fabric, then practice. If I haven't produced 5 beautiful pockets in a row, I'll cut another dozen and continue doing this until I've mastered it. Once I've mastered the construction technique, I'll draft the pattern based on all the technical information I've learned.
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web: http://www.studio9apparel.com
portfolio: http://www.behance.net/studio9apparel

#7 Schneidergott

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Posted 29 May 2009 - 06:44 AM

I have a few RTW shirts I like, so I could copy the width and even the shape of the collar without taking it apart. The collar stand and the actual shape of the neck hole and matching them will be my biggest challenge. I don't have a stooping figure, but my neck is a bit forward, so in most cases the collar stand is not in the right position in the front, which makes wearing ties a bit unpleasant. But that can be easily corrected, I think.
Is there any particular reason why the under collar or the inner part of the cuff has unnecessary amount of cloth? Could be I'm buying the wrong shirts, but the Brioni and other high class (mainly when it comes to pricing) shirts have a similar problem. Is it so difficult to cut the under collar or inner cuff a bit smaller and put them together? I don't think so.

So now, since nobody is falling for it: What is an invisibly- sewn patch pocket? I do have a rough idea, but let's see if it's right.
Or maybe someone could start a thread on (coat and alike) pockets and how to make them? Hypnotized.gif

"Nur der ist Meister seiner Kunst, der immer sucht, das Gute zu verbessern und niemals glaubt, das Beste schon zu haben."
"Only he is a master of his art who always seeks to improve the good and never believes to have the best already"

http://www.dressedwell.net/ It's snarky, but fun.


#8 jcsprowls

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Posted 29 May 2009 - 07:57 AM

The pockets come by many names. I've heard them called invisibly-stitched, interior stitched and - most recently - bluffed. Basically, the pocket is flipped face-to-face with the garment, then you sew around the seam allowance, turning the pocket out as you stitch up and around the other side.

No reason it couldn't be done on shirts. One acquaintance of mine did a lined pocket like this on a camp shirt style in production. It looked to be quite well-executed. So, if you can get a line of 10 stitchers to master it, there's no reason it shouldn't - at least - be attempted.

RE: undercuffs and interior collar stands. This is a little squirrely, meaning: I think every shop does it differently. I undercut the leading edges of my undercuffs and undercollar leaves. But, for my exterior collar stand, I increase the leading edges because I want the interior to shrink/finish at the specified measurement. No one has ever screamed at me for doing it. And, no factory has told me (yet...) they won't sew my patterns.

I happen to like the way Hugo Boss shirts are produced, so I have taken a lot of cues from reference garments I (and, my razor blade) have analyzed.

I think the excess cloth you're talking about has to do with laundering. Commercial wet cleaning can make the interfacing shrink more because the heat is too high on the buck presses. Even though I've provided under- and over-cutting on the pattern, it can't make up for rapidly shrinking interfacing.

That said: I did receive a couple metres of shirt interfacing from Kufner. I'll need to run up some samples and full garments for laundry testing. It feels finer quality than the STC/QST stuff I'm currently recommending to customers. But, the proof comes in testing.

RE: your shirt fitting. I'd suggest first mocking up the body - no sleeves and no collar stand - before going any further. Get the pitch and shape of your neck and scye on paper before moving forward.
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web: http://www.studio9apparel.com
portfolio: http://www.behance.net/studio9apparel

#9 Der Zuschneider

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Posted 12 January 2010 - 12:44 AM

No men shirt will fit unless you cut it with a small chest dart like for the women. The dart can be hidden in some 'Einsatz'. Without such dart the the front neck or the front armhole becomes rediculous. The sleeve could be taken out of some construction for women. Men shirts schould be redeveloped. But nobody is interested on this planet to cut a shirt right.
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#10 Sator

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Posted 12 January 2010 - 09:55 AM

I doubt that men would accept extra seams on their shirts. Also shirtmakers don't really aim at attaining the same sort of Schluss that a coatmaker does.

#11 SewingDominique

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Posted 05 July 2010 - 07:07 AM

Are there more styles of shirts?

#12 napoli

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Posted 24 April 2014 - 07:05 PM

let's update this great thread

#13 Baxter

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Posted 05 May 2014 - 03:35 AM

Thanks for sharing this great thread!






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